Huri Te Ao Hoahoanga - School of Future Environments
Aotearoa New Zealand
  PhD, BDes (Int Arch).  Author of Regenerative Urban Design and Ecosystem Biomimicry  
Auckland University of Technology

Te Wānanga Aronui O Tāmaki Makaurau

Dr Maibritt Pedersen Zari 

Associate Professor

Conference Papers

(click on the icons to access the papers)


The intersection of carbon sequestration and habitat provision in built environments: building rating tools comparison. 

54th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association, 26th to 27th November 2020, Auckland, New Zealand (online).

The expansion of the built environment is a significant driver of climate change and the loss of biodiversity. Subsequently, ecosystem services required for the basic survival of humans are often reduced or removed altogether in many urban contexts. There are numerous building rating tools that are used to conduct building assessments in order to reduce impacts through building design and innovation. This study explores the potential relationships (synergies and trade-offs) between carbon sequestration and habitat provision in building design, and how these can be implemented as an important part of building rating systems. This paper presents a comparative analysis of three building rating tools identifying how they take the provision of habitat and the sequestration of carbon into account during building assessment. Results demonstrate that the building rating systems tend to aim for minimisation of carbon emissions rather than sequestering of carbon from the environment. The only exception to this is the Living Building Challenge. Furthermore, habitat provision is seldom assessed in great detail. The paper concludes by proposing a number of strategies for habitat provision that foster or relate to carbon sequestration in the context of building design.


Ecosystem services assessment tools for regenerative urban design in Oceania. 

54th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association, 26th to 27th November 2020, Auckland, New Zealand (online).

Tools that spatially model ecosystem services offer the opportunity to include ecological values into regenerative urban design practices. However, few of these tools are suitable for assessing ecosystem services in cities, meaning their application by urban designers and architects is potentially limited. This research reviews and compares a diverse range of ecosystem services assessment tools to find those that are most suited for the urban context of Aotearoa New Zealand and Pacific Oceania islands. The tool classification includes essential aspects of project management such as type of input and output data, time commitment, and necessary skills required. The strengths and limitations of the most relevant tools are further discussed alongside illustrative case studies, some collected from literature and one conducted as part of the research in Wellington, Aotearoa. A major finding of the research is that from the 95 tools reviewed, 4 are judged to be relevant for urban design projects. These are modelling tools that allow spatially explicit visualisation of biophysical quantification of ecosystem services. The ecosystem services assessed vary among tools and the outputs reliability often depends on the user’s technical expertise. The provided recommendations support urban designers and architects to choose the tool that best suits their regenerative design project requirements.


Biodiver-Cities: an architectural exploration of how architecture and urban design can regenerate ecosystem services & biodiversity. 

53rd International Conference of the Architectural Science Association, 28th to 30th November 2019, Roorkee, India.

Architecture can play a crucial role in supporting ecosystems and reducing biodiversity loss in urban environments. With predicted urban population increase and a subsequent need for more housing, how buildings and infrastructure is designed will have a direct impact on surrounding ecosystems and biodiversity. Therefore, the built environment design should include careful consideration of how to actively integrate with and regenerate ecosystem services and biodiversity. Through emulating ecosystems and their functions using an ecosystem services framework, and through incorporating biophilic design principles, a regenerative design practice may emerge that positively impacts socio-ecological systems from a health and wellbeing perspective. This research explores this proposition through a design-led research methodology, combining ecological and environmental psychology knowledge into architectural design practice. The outcomes range from neighbourhood scales through to architectural, and focus on retrofit and new build design. Wellington, New Zealand is the site of the design research. New Zealand’s biodiversity is unique, having evolved free from most land-based mammals before humans introduced non-indigenous species. The research concludes that through an ecosystem services and biophilic design framework, architecture can have a positive roles in ecosystems, from both a technical perspective and as an influencer of user behaviour.


Biomimicry for regenerative built environments: mapping design strategies for producing ecosystem services (Keynote). 

In: Zanelli, A., Monticelli, C., Mollaert, M. & Stimpfle, B. (eds.) TensiNet Symposium - Softening the habitat. Milan, Italy: Politecnico di Milano.

Redesigning and retrofitting cities so they become complex systems that create ecological and societal health through the provision of ecosystem services is of critical importance. This is due to two key reasons. Firstly, it is well known that cities have a large negative ecological impact, and secondly, the human population is rapidly growing and is now mostly urbanised. As professionals of the built environment are required to solve more urgent and complex problems related to ongoing climate change, and biodiversity loss, it may be useful to examine examples of how the same problems have been solved by other living organisms or ecosystems. This can be termed biomimicry. Biomimicry that emulates whole ecosystems, particularly the function of ecosystems, has been identified as having more potential to positively shift the ecological performance of buildings and urban settings. In this regard the ecosystem services concept is useful. Although a small number of methodologies and frameworks for considering how to design urban environments so that they emulate and provide ecosystem services have been proposed, their use is not wide spread. A key barrier has been identified as a lack of translation of the concept of ecosystem services design into practical examples of design strategies, concepts, and technologies, and case study precedents illustrating the concepts. In response, this paper presents research seeking to create a qualitative complex map in an online interactive format that relates the ecosystem services concept to design strategies and case studies in a comprehensible format for use by designers and built environment professionals. The paper concludes that buildings, and indeed whole cities should be expected to become active contributors to eco-sociological systems, rather than remaining unresponsive agents of ecosystem degeneration, and that the strategies and technologies to enable this already exist.

Reconnecting Children with nature: biophilic primary school learning environments.
Zero Energy Mass Custom Home (ZEMCH) International Conference, Melbourne, Australia.

85% of New Zealanders now live in urban centres and 70% of New Zealander’s time is spent inside, meaning people are spending less time outside and in places that can be considered ‘nature’. This is problematic because international quantitative and qualitative research shows that this negatively affects human wellbeing and cognitive performance. This ‘nature deficit’ also impacts the development of personal bonds with nature which relates to learning to value protect nature. This particularly affects young children. As the next generation grows up in this environment increasingly removed from nature, how will children form personal bonds with nature if they spend their key developmental years removed from the natural world? To address this research question, this design-led research focuses on primary school learning environment design and explores how spatial design can encourage this connection between child and nature, using biophilic design to create space which encourages children to interact with nature and natural elements. This paper discusses the results of a workshop held with children aged 5-7 exploring their preferences and opinions about nature, learning environments and play. These results are discussed in relation to how they could be applied to learning environment design.


What makes a city ‘biophilic’? Observations and experiences from the Wellington Nature Map project. 

Back to the future: The next 50 years, 51st International Conference of the Architectural Science Association. Wellington, New Zealand.

Despite clear benefits of maintaining human relationships with nature, people increasingly live in urban settings and spend high proportions of time indoors. Both of these trends are increasing globally. This means it is vital to ensure that future cities are designed, created and managed to enable meaningful human / nature connections. Cities that are examples of urban environments where human / nature relationships are innately encouraged and are part of residents’ daily experiences have been termed ‘biophilic cities’. Wellington, New Zealand is one of a select few cities internationally that has been identified as a biophilic city. In order to test the validity of that claim, this research set out to use GIS mapping to determine specific areas, sites and buildings that could be identified as being biophilic within Wellington. In order to do this, a unique biophilic cities framework was devised where 30 unique characteristics of biophilic cities were identified and used to map Wellington. Results from this mapping research are examined. Key findings include that when several identified aspects of biophilic design are nearby in urban settings, experiencing these through time while moving through a city enhances the positive effects of these elements.

Biodiversity conservation in urban environments: a review on the importance of spatial patterning of landscapes.
Ecocity World Summit. Melbourne, Australia.

It has been well established that biodiversity plays an irreplaceable role in ensuring the quality of human life through supporting ecosystem functions and services. As more and more people prefer to live in cities worldwide, biodiversity loss in urban environments is being increasingly reported more than ever before. This, in turn, may have a negative influence on the quality of human life in an urbanising world. Global research shows that the abundance and richness of fauna in urban environments depends, to a large extent, on the spatial patterning of different patches of urban vegetation such as urban forests, woodlands, parks, and gardens. The principal aim of the research is to provide a coherent picture of the importance of spatial patterning and spatial ecology of wildlife species in urban environments. Based upon empirical data from North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Oceania, the research involves a systematic review of international peer-reviewed publications relating to the connection between biodiversity and the composition and configuration of urban wildlife habitats. This review reveals the most important components of landscape pattern that contribute to the abundance and richness of urban wildlife species. Ultimately, the results provide a deeper understanding of the strategic importance of spatial dimensions of landscape planning and management, in support of biodiversity conservation in landscapes that have already been widely affected by anthropogenic development. Importantly, the findings provide a set of spatially explicit recommendations that can be strategically applied in urban landscape architecture and land use planning disciplines to help ensure that urban biodiversity is maintained in an era of climate change and rapid urbanisation.

Lessons for urban designers: Enhancing a city’s liveability, sustainability, and sense of community from the bottom-up. Case studies from Havana, Cuba.
Cities, Communities and Homes: Is the Urban Future Livable? Derby, United Kingdom.

Most of humanity now resides in cities. The proportion of people living in cities is swiftly rising and by 2050 more than two thirds of all humans will be urbanites. The city therefore must be a vehicle for rapid change as society collectively grapples with changes in climate, declines in ecosystem service provision, and changes in human wellbeing indicators worldwide. This is particularly true in cities in lower to middle income countries, where urbanisation is most rapid. A vital question for the coming decades therefore is: how can cities contribute to rather than deplete the health of people, and the wider ecosystems and climate that cities are parts of? Most approaches tend to employ top-down or government-led methods and strategies, despite evidence being clear that the role of individual human behaviour change, and engaged active citizenship is often paramount to lasting urban sustainability solutions. This research examines two examples of effective citizen initiated change in Havana, Cuba, that over medium terms, have led to demonstrable ecological and social benefits. One details an effort to galvanise citizen led protection of urban trees, while the other relates to the greening of a suburb to enhance community engagement in urban food production. The social conditions leading to these projects and the impacts of them are discussed. The case study findings lead to a set of strategies for urban and architectural professionals to consider, and demonstrate that the influence of one individual can be significant in creating change in broader communities.

Urban food production: Increasing resilience, livability, and a sense of community in Brazil, Cuba, and New Zealand.
Cities, Communities and Homes: Is the Urban Future Livable? Derby, United Kingdom.

This paper presents the findings from part of a larger research project about the reduction of environmental impact created by producing food within urban areas. The importance of the population’s diet in the composition of their environmental impact is a relevant matter. Currently, this is not widely and fully considered when urban planners and designers, architects and landscape architects attempt to design sustainable buildings or neighbourhoods. An understanding of how people made up their diet seems to be beyond the designers’ scope. On the other hand, several studies in different parts of the world have been suggesting remarkable contributions to sustainability from the production of food inside urban areas. In order to assess the benefits of community gardens, several initiatives have been investigated in different parts of the world. Following this, three examples, in three different countries, have been selected to compare the potential social contributions from the production of food inside urban areas. 

Education as mediation: Blurring the line between expert and lay knowledge.

8th International Conference and Exhibition of the Association of Architecture Schools of Australasia, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Since the 1970s more than half of the Tokelau population has relocated to New Zealand due to limited natural resources and overcrowding of the 10 km2 land area. This raises issues related to the cultural identity and wellbeing of Tokelau people in New Zealand. Local Tokelau community groups in the Wellington region seek to maintain their cultural traditions through the development of community centres. However, these facilities are expensive to purchase, build and to maintain, and have the potential to overburden the Tokelau community, which has a very high portion of low-income people. This paper discusses a series of initiatives the School of Architecture at Victoria University of Wellington has initiated in relationship with Te Umiumiga a Tokelau Hutt Valley community to assist the development of a sustainable cultural community centre complex.  It elaborates upon the processes of empowerment and on-going developments that have resulting in significant benefits for the community, students and staff alike. Ways that the university can work as a mediator between institutions such as museums, local city councils, funding organisations and disadvantaged/underprivileged communities are explored. A key finding of the collaboration showed that mediation goes both ways and that there is both a process of giving and receiving in such a relationship that facilitates a blurring of boundaries between ‘expert’ and ‘lay’ knowledge. Through various avenues, students have been empowered to engage directly with the community, enabling the redesign of the Youth Centre, construction of furniture, exploration of alternative energy sources, community garden initiatives, and looking at landscape as a resilient resource. Empowering outcomes for the community have extended well beyond arts and craft demonstrations to encompass anti-violence campaigning, new parent campaigns, the celebration of children's books in the Tokelau language, youth talent competitions, and elder games.  By participating in the learning community, students and faculty developed critical and creative skill and worked together for more complex understandings of the world.


Re-defining cutting edge sustainable design: from eco-efficiency to regenerative development.

Sustainable Building Conference (SB10). Wellington, New Zealand.

This paper explores the concept of a living systems approach to the built environment through the adoption of strategies such as regenerative development and eco-effectiveness. The research examines the differences and connections between these new concepts of sustainable architecture and design, compares these to current typical design approaches, and evaluates their effectiveness as a means to contribute to future development over the short, medium and long terms. Benefits and difficulties with each approach are elaborated upon, and a series of recommendations are made for future design, development, planning and policy directions, using New Zealand as an example case. The paper concludes that focusing on a goal of ecological and community regeneration, where success is measured by improvements in health and wellbeing for humans, other living beings and ecosystems, could contribute to a more resilient built environment which is better able to adapt to the pressures of peak oil, climate change and economic change. 

An architectural love of the living: Bio-inspired design in the pursuit of ecological regeneration and psychological wellbeing.
In: BREBBIA, C. A. (ed.) Sustainable Development and Planning IV. Southampton: Wessex Institute of Technology.

A growing amount of architectural discourse explores analogies between ecosystems and living organisms, and architectural design that increases the capacity for regeneration. This is referred to here as bio-inspired design. This paper examines the relationship between biophilic and biomimetic approaches to architectural design as two aspects of bio-inspired design. The theory that bio-inspired design is inherently linked in the creation of regenerative architecture, able to increase capacity for self repair in both living ecosystems and the human psyche is examined. Intersections, or mutualisms between design to improve the wellbeing of ecosystems and design to improve human wellbeing, such as biomimicry and biophilia, are analysed and may illustrate the key aspects of bio-inspired design that could contribute to regenerative design. The implications of such an approach are discussed, and the scientific basis of such a process is investigated.


Bioinspired architectural design to adapt to climate change
World Sustainable Building Conference (SB08). Melbourne, Australia.

International research suggests that the built environment may be responsible for at least a third of global green house gas (GHG) emissions and that measures should be implemented to mitigate these. It is also the built environment, as the principle habitat of humans that will need to adapt to climate change impacts to keep people comfortable and safe. Architects and designers may need to explore new ideas that are reflective of a shift in both climate and in expectations of the built environment. This paper explores the potential of biomimicry, where organisms or ecosystems are mimicked in human design. The question is posed: in what way is mimicking the living world useful in the design of buildings that are able to either mitigate green house gas emissions or adapt to climate change impacts? This paper investigates two possible options for an architectural biomimetic response to climate change. The first is integrating biomimetic technologies able to mitigate green house gas emissions into buildings. The second approach is use biomimicry to adapt to the direct impacts of climate change on the built environment. Documented successes and potential benefits and difficulties inherent in such approaches are discussed. As well as a reduced or potentially negative carbon footprint for the built environment, this paper analyses further significant benefits that such an approach may offer. It is posited that the incorporation of an understanding of the living world into architectural design could be a significant step towards the creation of a built environment that is more sustainable and one where the potential for positive integration with and restoration of natural carbon cycles is increased.


Neutralising education: Victoria university’s carbon neutral faculty of architecture and design.
World Sustainable Building Conference (SB08). Melbourne, Australia.

International research suggests that the built environment may be responsible for approximately a third of global carbon emissions. It is therefore particularly appropriate that Victoria University’s Faculty of Architecture and Design, in  Wellington, New Zealand has taken the significant step of becoming the Southern Hemisphere’s first carbon neutral campus, and the world’s first carbon neutral Faculty of Architecture and Design. This is part of the Faculty’s long term commitment to sustainability in the built environment and is consistent with a growing international movement calling for Architecture Schools to be carbon neutral by 2010. The process and opportunities that enabled the Faculty to become carbon neutral in May 2008 are outlined, including the preparation of a greenhouse gas emissions inventory, an emissions reduction and management plan and the audit and accreditation process. The successes and difficulties inherent in the approach taken are examined. As well as reduced environmental impact, this paper analyses further significant anticipated benefits of the Faculty of Architecture and Design’s carbon neutral status, including opportunities to publish research and enhance the reputation of the Faculty and the significant opportunities arising for the development of new teaching tools and methods. Involvement and participation by students in reduction plans and the facilitation of a forum for debate and discussion about the future of carbon trading markets are also elaborated on. It is anticipated that the process undertaken by Victoria University of Wellington’s Faculty of Architecture and Design could be used as an example by other educational institutions moving towards becoming carbon neutral. It is posited that reducing and offsetting carbon emissions in academic institutions, particularly those responsible for the education of new generations of built environment professionals, could become an important part of the creation of a built environment that is better able to address mitigating the causes of climate change.

Biomimetic Approaches to Architectural Design for Increased Sustainability.
Sustainable Building Conference (SB07). Auckland, New Zealand.

Biomimicry, where flora, fauna or entire ecosystems are emulated as a basis for design, is a growing area of research in the fields of architecture and engineering. This is due to both the fact that it is an inspirational source of possible new innovation and because of the potential it offers as a way to create a more sustainable and even regenerative built environment. The widespread and practical application of biomimicry as a design method remains however largely unrealised. A growing body of international research identifies various obstacles to the employment of biomimicry as an architectural design method. One barrier of particular note is the lack of a clearly defined understanding of the various approaches to biomimicry that designers can initially employ. Through a comparative literature review, and an examination of existing biomimetic technologies, this paper elaborates on distinct approaches to biomimetic design that have evolved. A framework for understanding the various forms of biomimicry has been developed, and is used to discuss the distinct advantages and disadvantages inherent in each as a design methodology. It is shown that these varied approaches lead to different outcomes in terms of overall sustainability or regenerative potential. It is posited that a biomimetic approach to architectural design that incorporates an understanding of ecosystems could become a vehicle for creating a built environment that goes beyond simply sustaining current conditions to a restorative practice where the built environment becomes a vital component in the integration with and regeneration of natural ecosystems.

An ecosystem based biomimetic theory for a regenerative built environment.
Lisbon Sustainable Building Conference (SB07). Lisbon, Portugal.

Biomimicry, where flora, fauna or entire ecosystems are emulated as a basis for design, has attracted considerable interest in the fields of architectural design and engineering as an innovative new design approach and importantly as a potential way to shift the built environment to a more sustainable paradigm. The practical application of biomimicry as a design methodology, particularly in the built environment, remains elusive however. This paper seeks to contextualise the various approaches to biomimicry and provides an integrated set of principles that could form the basis for an ecosystem based design theory. This would enable practitioners to reach beyond sustainability to a regenerative design practice where the built environment becomes a vital component in the integration with and regeneration of natural ecosystems as the wider human habitat.


Patterns from Nature.
Society for Experimental Mechanics (SEM) Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Springfield, Massachusetts.

We are facing increasingly complex and far-reaching environmental challenges that require inter-disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the research and design disciplines are trending towards ever greater specialisation, inhibiting communication and collaboration amongst professionals. The concept of "Pattern Language" was developed in the late 1970s by Christopher Alexander as a way to capture and communicate archetypal problems and solutions in architecture. Patterns provide a structure or framework that helps focus attention on core issues, leading to a deeper understanding of specific problems. By using a language that is not specific to a discipline, patterns facilitate inter-disciplinary communication. Patterns are arranged in a network as defined by a 'grammar'. Through a common terminology at multiple levels, a pattern language helps place problems and solutions in a larger context and promotes a systems perspective. At the same time, a pattern language identifies component patterns that need to be analyzed and incorporated to develop a 'whole' solution. Current effort to develop a pattern language based on natural systems will facilitate the transfer of biological knowledge to other fields and encourage inter-disciplinary collaboration between practitioners and biologists. Such a pattern language can incorporate technical solutions, supporting their integration into sustainable systems solutions.

Factor X - Well Being as a Key Component of Next Generation Green Buildings.
Rethinking Sustainable Construction’06 Conference, 2006 Sarasota, Florida, USA.

Any paradigm for next generation of green buildings must include user well-being and satisfaction as primary tenets.  This is not easy to achieve, but unless we do incorporate these parameters, built outcomes are unlikely to be sustainable, even if they are resource efficient.  This paper defines well-being as a holistic physical, psychological and metaphysical phenomenon, describes the benefits of well-being design and discusses the elements that are considered to be most influential in enhancing user’s holistic physiological and psychological well-being. It presents an overview of scientific research currently being undertaken in this area.  Such research while in its infancy tends to validate the current intuitive design stance taken by many successful architects relative to designing for well-being and suggests that we could beneficially incorporate many of these well-being connected ideas into paradigm for next generation green buildings. It is concluded that if integrated with sustainable technologies, well-being enhancement factors can work synergistically, in our building designs, to enhance user happiness and satisfaction, improve user productivity, health, morale and vitality and are likely to make resource efficient architecture much more appealing to a wide constituency of building users than is currently the case.  A more tentative assertion is that architecture that enhances people’s feeling of well-being could be an agent for positive change in relation to work ethics and values, community spirit and interpersonal relationships.   If we can create places where people want to be, that delight, stimulate, rejuvenate, are in harmony with the environment and resource efficient, then we will have succeeded in creating a truly sustainable architecture.

Conference Presentations 

Name underlined was the presenter

2020, Chanse, V., Pedersen Zari, M. Kiddle, L. and Blaschke, P. ‘Developing a Nature-based Urban Design and Planning Toolkit and Agenda for Urban Resilience in Oceania’s Cities’. NZGS Conference. 25th to 27th November 2020, Wellington, New Zealand.

2020, Blaschke, P., Kiddle, L., Pedersen Zari, M. and Chanse, V. ‘The potential of nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation and increased resilience in Aotearoa and Pacific Ocean Cities’. NZGS Conference. 25th to 27th November 2020, Wellington, New Zealand.

2020, MacKinnon, R., and Pedersen Zari, M. ‘The importance of urban green spaces during a global pandemic’. NZGS Conference. 25th to 27th November 2020, Wellington, New Zealand.

2020, Donaldson, T., and Pedersen Zari, M. ‘Urban design for the support of coastal biodiversity. NZGS Conference’. 25th to 27th November 2020, Wellington, New Zealand.

2020, Delpy, F., and Pedersen Zari, M. ‘Working with ecosystem services assessment tools in cities of the Pacific islands for more effective urban design’. NZGS Conference. 25th to 27th November 2020, Wellington, New Zealand. (Virtual).

2020, Varshney, K., Pedersen Zari, M. and Bakshi, N. ‘Integrating ecosystem services with building rating tools: the need for Nature-based Solutions in architectural design’. NZGS Conference. 25th to 27th November 2020, Wellington, New Zealand.

2020, Blaschke, P., Pedersen Zari, M., Kiddle, L., and Chanse, V. ‘The potential of nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation and increased resilience in Pacific Ocean Cities’. Pacific Ocean Pacific Climate change Conference, Apia, Samoa. (Virtual). 2020, Chanse, V., Pedersen Zari, M., Blaschke, P., and Kiddle, L. ‘Developing a Nature-based Urban Design and Planning Toolkit and Agenda for Urban Resilience in Oceania’s Cities’. Pacific Ocean Pacific Climate change Conference, Apia, Samoa. (Virtual). 
2019, Blaschke, P., Kiddle, L., Pedersen Zari, M. et al. ‘Ocean Cities. Using ecosystem services-based solutions to increases resilience in Oceania’s urban areas’. Oceania Ecosystem Services Forum, Christchurch, New Zealand.

2018, Blaschke, P., Pedersen Zari, M. ‘Wellington central city green spaces: is there enough and do they deliver optimum ecosystem services?’ New Zealand Ecological Society Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.

2018, Blaschke, P., Pedersen Zari, M. et al. ‘The outdoor housing environment matters too: the role of urban green space in the central city’. 8th ICEERB Housing Sustainability in Urban Areas Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.

2018. Pedersen Zari, M. ‘Generous cities: urban ecosystem biomimicry’ (Key Note). Generous Cities Summit, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America.

2018, Pedersen Zari, M. ‘Biophilic urbanism: understanding and designing nature experiences in cities’. Activating Biophilic Cities (ABC) International Conference, London, England. (Invited special issue journal publication in review).

2018, Pedersen Zari, M. ‘Urban ecosystem services: habitat provision’. European Forum on Urban Forestry (EFUF) International Conference, Helsinki, Finland. (Invited special issue journal publication).

2007, Pedersen Zari, M.Closed Loop Materials Cycles: Architectural Education to Affect Change’. Building Materials Reuse Association (BMRA) Conference on Deconstruction, Building Materials Reuse, and C&D Recycling, Madison, Wisconsin United States of America.

2007, Pedersen Zari, M. ‘Biomimetic Approaches to Architectural Design’, Sustainable Building (SB07) Regional Sustainable Building Conference, Toronto, Canada. Poster.